Skip to main content

Peripheral Nerve Stimulation

Infrared light has been shown to activate peripheral nerves in vivo using pulsed laser light; however, translation of infrared neural stimulation (INS) to the central nervous system provides a number of challenges since the exact mechanism of INS is unknown and the anatomy of CNS tissue is different from peripheral nerves.  My research is focused on characterizing INS for stimulation of the cortex in vivo.  I employ the use of optical imaging techniques and electrophysiology to study the effects of pulsed infrared light irradiation of cerebellar and somatosensory cortices.  We have shown that stimulating the rodent brain with infrared light induces hemodynamic responses that are similar to intrinsic hemodynamic responses from natural stimuli,  and studies using electrophysiological techniques have shown that the laser light does not necessarily produce a one to one response as is seen the peripheral nervous system.  We are currently studying the effects of INS on the intracellular calcium concentrations using Oregon Green Calcium dye injected into the cortex.  The results from this study will help further our understanding of the mechanisms of INS and guide future studies aimed at stimulating the central nervous system.


S. Tozburun, C. D. Stahl, T. C. Hutchens, G. A. Lagoda, A. L. Burnett, and N. M. Fried, "Continuous-wave infrared subsurface optical stimulation of the rat prostate cavernous nerves using a 1490-nm diode laser," Urology, vol. 82, pp. 969-73, Oct 2013.

A. C. Thompson, S. A. Wade, P. J. Cadusch, W. G. Brown, and P. R. Stoddart, "Modeling of the temporal effects of heating during infrared neural stimulation," J Biomed Opt, vol. 18, p. 035004, Mar 2013.

A. Thompson, S. Wade, N. Pawsey, and P. Stoddart, "Infrared Neural Stimulation: Influence of stimulation site spacing and repetition rates on heating," IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, Jul 11 2013.

A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, H. K. Young, B. Badofsky, S. M. Rajguru, S. Stock, and C.-P. Richter, "Behavioral and Electrophysiological Responses Evoked by Chronic Infrared Neural Stimulation of the Cochlea," PLoS ONE, vol. 8, p. e58189, 2013.

R. Liljemalm, T. Nyberg, and H. von Holst, "Heating during infrared neural stimulation," Lasers Surg Med, Jul 7 2013.

S. Tozburun, G. A. Lagoda, A. L. Burnett, and N. M. Fried, "Subsurface near-infrared laser stimulation of the periprostatic cavernous nerves," Journal of Biophotonics, pp. n/a-n/a, 2012.

A. C. Thompson, S. A. Wade, W. G. Brown, and P. R. Stoddart, "Modeling of light absorption in tissue during infrared neural stimulation," J Biomed Opt, vol. 17, p. 075002, Jul 2012.

V. Goyal, S. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, S. R. Stock, and C.-P. Richter, "Acute Damage Threshold for Infrared Neural Stimulation of the Cochlea: Functional and Histological Evaluation," The Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology, vol. 295, pp. 1987-1999, 2012.

M. M. Chernov, A. R. Duke, J. M. Cayce, S. W. Crowder, H.-J. Sung, and E. D. Jansen, "Material considerations for optical interfacing to the nervous system," MRS Bulletin, vol. 37, pp. 599-605, 2012.

T. V. F. Abaya, M. Diwekar, S. Blair, P. Tathireddy, L. Rieth, G. A. Clark, and F. Solzbacher, "Characterization of a 3D optrode array for infrared neural stimulation," Biomed. Opt. Express, vol. 3, pp. 2200-2219, 2012.

C. P. Richter, S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, E. L. Moreno, A. J. Fishman, A. M. Robinson, E. Suh, and J. T. Walsh, "Spread of cochlear excitation during stimulation with pulsed infrared radiation: inferior colliculus measurements," J Neural Eng, vol. 8, p. 056006, Oct 2011.

S. M. Rajguru, C. P. Richter, A. I. Matic, G. R. Holstein, S. M. Highstein, G. M. Dittami, and R. D. Rabbitt, "Infrared photostimulation of the crista ampullaris," J Physiol, vol. 589, pp. 1283-94, Mar 15 2011.

L. E. Moreno, S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, N. Yerram, A. M. Robinson, M. Hwang, S. Stock, and C. P. Richter, "Infrared neural stimulation: Beam path in the guinea pig cochlea," Hear Res, vol. 282, pp. 289-302, Jul 3 2011.

A. I. Matic, J. T. Walsh, and C. P. Richter, "Spatial extent of cochlear infrared neural stimulation determined by tone-on-light masking," J Biomed Opt, vol. 16, p. 118002, Nov 2011.

S. Tozburun, C. M. Cilip, G. A. Lagoda, A. L. Burnett, and N. M. Fried, "Continuous-wave infrared optical nerve stimulation for potential diagnostic applications," J Biomed Opt, vol. 15, p. 055012, Sep-Oct 2010.

S. M. Rajguru, A. I. Matic, A. M. Robinson, A. J. Fishman, L. E. Moreno, A. Bradley, I. Vujanovic, J. Breen, J. D. Wells, M. Bendett, and C. P. Richter, "Optical cochlear implants: evaluation of surgical approach and laser parameters in cats," Hear Res, vol. 269, pp. 102-11, Oct 1 2010.

P. D. Littlefield, I. Vujanovic, J. Mundi, A. I. Matic, and C. P. Richter, "Laser stimulation of single auditory nerve fibers," Laryngoscope, vol. 120, pp. 2071-82, Oct 2010.

M. W. Jenkins, A. R. Duke, GuS, DoughmanY, H. J. Chiel, FujiokaH, WatanabeM, E. D. Jansen, and A. M. Rollins, "Optical pacing of the embryonic heart," Nat Photon, vol. 4, pp. 623-626, 2010.

C.-P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, E. Suh, S. Goyal, J. Hotaling, and J. T. Walsh Jr., "Optical stimulation of auditory neurons: effects of acute and chronic deafening," Hear Res, vol. 242, pp. 42-51, 2008.

A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, Jr., H. Ralph, J. Webb, M. Bendett, J. Wells, and C. P. Richter, "Laser stimulation of auditory neurons: effect of shorter pulse duration and penetration depth," Biophys J, vol. 94, pp. 3159-66, Apr 15 2008.

N. M. Fried, G. A. Lagoda, N. J. Scott, L. M. Su, and A. L. Burnett, "Noncontact stimulation of the cavernous nerves in the rat prostate using a tunable-wavelength thulium fiber laser," J Endourol, vol. 22, pp. 409-13, Mar 2008.

J. D. Wells, S. Thomsen, P. Whitaker, E. D. Jansen, C. C. Kao, P. E. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Optically mediated nerve stimulation: Identification of injury thresholds," Lasers Surg Med, vol. 39, pp. 513-26, Jul 2007.

J. D. Wells, C. Kao, P. E. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, "Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve," Biophys J, vol. 93, pp. 2567–2580, May 25 2007.

J. Wells, P. Konrad, C. Kao, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Pulsed laser versus electrical energy for peripheral nerve stimulation," J Neurosci Methods, vol. 163, pp. 326-37, Jul 30 2007.

I. Teudt, A. Nevel, A. D. Izzo, J. T. Walsh, and C.-P. Richter, "Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: a new monitoring technique?," Laryngoscope, vol. 117, pp. 1641-1647, 2007.

A. D. Izzo, E. Suh, J. Pathria, J. T. Walsh, D. S. Whitlon, and C. P. Richter, "Selectivity of neural stimulation in the auditory system: a comparison of optic and electric stimuli," J Biomed Opt, vol. 12, p. 021008, Mar-Apr 2007.

A. D. Izzo, J. Joseph T. Walsh, E. D. Jansen, M. Bendett, J. Webb, H. Ralph, and C.-P. Richter, "Optical parameter variability in laser nerve stimulation: a study of pulse duration, repetition rate, and wavelength," IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, vol. 54, pp. 1108-1114, 2007.

A. D. Izzo, C.-P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh, "Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve," Laser Surg Med, vol. 38, pp. 745-753, 2006.

J. D. Wells, C. Kao, K. Mariappan, J. Albea, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Optical stimulation of neural tissue in vivo," Optics Lett, vol. 30, pp. 504-506, 2005.

J. D. Wells, C. Kao, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, "Application of infrared light for in vivo neural stimulation," J Biomed Opt, vol. 10, p. 064003, 2005.