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REU Past Students

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2011

  • Rebecca Cioffi - Materials Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

    Rebecca CioffiEducational Institution: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
    List of Mentors: Dr. Yaqiong Xu, Yunhao Cao, Tu Hong
    Program: NSF REU Program
    Research Project: Use of micromechanical exfoliation of bulk graphite and MoS2 to establish a graphene/MoS2 junction
    Poster: Rebecca Cioffi Student Poster.pdf
    Research Abstract:
    The goal of this study is to explore the properties of a graphene/molybdenum disulfide junction using photoconductivity measurements. To begin, micromechanical exfoliation via the scotch-tape method has been used to obtain monolayer and few layer thick flakes of graphene and MoS2. Optical and Raman microscopes have been used to determine whether the flakes are one atomic layer thick. Using the same cleavage process as for cleaving bulk graphite and MoS2, graphite and MoS2 will be cleaved simultaneously, creating a junction between the two single-layer flakes. This mixture will be deposited onto the SiO2/Si substrate. This will form a Schottky barrier between the graphene, a semimetal and MoS2, a p-type doped semiconductor. Electrodes will then be deposited connecting to both materials on the silicon wafer. Analysis of the electronic transport properties and photon-electron conversion of the graphene/MoS2 junction will allow for further research into the potential usage of such a device in photovoltaics, transistors, and optoelectonic devices.

    • Conference Presentation
      G. Musick*, R. Cioffi, Y. Cao, T. Hong and Y. Xu, “Creating a Junction between Single layer graphene and single layer MOS2” 22nd Annual EPSCoR Conference, Coeur d’Alene, ID, October 2011.
  • Jonathan Clinger - Physics, Lipscomb University

    Jonathan ClingerEducational Institution: Lipscomb University
    List of Mentors: Dr. Kirill Bolotin, Hiram Conley
    Program: NSF TN-SCORE Program
    Research Project: Creating controllable strain in graphene
    Poster: Jonathan Clinger Student Poster.pdf
    Research Abstract:
    It has been predicted that a controlled distribution of strain in graphene can create a band gap in its density of states, which could potentially lead to multiple device applications of graphene in electronics. We developed two novel methods to induce strain in large-scale graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. We demonstrated creation of uniaxial strain up to 0.5% by fabricating a device where a sheet of graphene is suspended between two gold supports and then controllably pulling the graphene down onto a third support. In a different approach, we induced a strain of 0.2% in graphene by depositing it onto a polymer that was then strained. The graphene can then be transferred onto an arbitrary substrate to enable greater flexibility in device design. We expect that the devices fabricated using these methods will allow us to investigate the influence of strain on electronic transport in graphene.

  • Justin Colar - Civil Engineering, Alabama A&M University

    Justin ColarEducational Institution: Alabama A&M University
    List of Mentors: Dr. Greg Walker, Dr. Rachael Hansel, Sarah Gollub
    Program: NSF-REU
    Research Project: Investigation of the Quenching Concentration of Europium in Photo Luminescent Lanthanum Zirconate
    Poster: Justin Colar Student Poster.pdf
    Research Abstract:
    Lanthanum Zirconate, La2Zr2O7 (LAZ) is commonly used within the aeronautics industry as a protective coating on the surface of gas turbine blades. The LAZ coating is used to protect the blades from the hot corrosive gases that are produced during the operation of a gas turbine. When LAZ is doped with europium (Eu) it can become a temperature sensor. This is done by beaming a wavelength of light to excite the electrons within the LAZ:Eu lattice, and as the electrons come back to down to the ground state they will give off energy in the form of photons. The time it takes for the electrons to come back down to the ground state is known as the decay time. Decay time is temperature dependent; therefore, the time it takes for the electrons to come down to the ground state is proportionate to the temperature. However, it is currently not known at what concentration of europium in LAZ will give the brightest intensity. The goal of this summer research project is to find out at what concentration of europium in LAZ will quench. This is possible by increasing the concentration of europium and then comparing the emissions spectra at different concentrations. This research will produce a higher intensity sensor that will be able to relay better results when trying to measure temperature.

    • Justin was awarded a Department of Defense SMART Scholarship.
  • Megan Dunn - Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas

    Megan DunnEducational Institution: University of Arkansas
    List of Mentors: Dr. Craig Duvall, Dr. Hongmei Li, Brian Evans
    Program: NSF-REU
    Research Project: Delivery of an MK2 Inhibitor Utilizing Peptide Stapling
    Poster: Megan Dunn Student Poster.pdf
    Research Abstract:
    Coronary artery bypass grafting is an effective treatment for ischemic heart diseases, but long-term patency remains a significant problem. Recent studies have shown that greater than 45% of grafts experience failure in the first 18 months. Graft failure is primarily attributed to intimal hyperplasia, a pathological process in which vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) migrate, proliferate, and deposit extracellular matrix into a neointima. MAPKAP kinase II (MK2) is an upstream regulator of heat shock protein 27 which has been shown to play a major role in the transition of VSMCs to the pathological, proliferative phenotype characteristic of intimal hyperplasia. Therefore, we hypothesize that successful inhibition of MK2 will prevent intimal hyperplasia and ultimately improve graft patency. A previous study has identified a peptide sequence, MK2i, which effectively inhibits MK2 at a concentration range of 8.1-134 µM. However, efficient intracellular delivery of the peptide emains a significant barrier. The overall goal of this project is to determine if peptide stapling can be utilized to enable intracellular delivery of the MK2i peptide. Peptide stapling uses a ring closing reaction to add a hydrocarbon “staple” to successive turns of an α-helix. Stapled peptides have increased helicity, potency, protease resistance and most importantly, cell permeability. The specific aim of this project was to determine if MK2i was a suitable candidate for peptide stapling and develop a protocol for the synthesis of the stapled MK2i peptide. Mk2i was synthesized using solid-phase peptide synthesis (SSPS) with Fmoc chemistry. Circular dichroism was used to assess secondary structure of MK2i in both water and trifluoroethanol which is known to induce α- helical secondary structure in peptides. The circular dichroism results showed that the peptide was 6% α-helical in water and 13% α-helical in trifluoroethanol. These findings suggest that MK2i may be a suitable candidate for peptide stapling. This hypothesis will be further tested by implementing the developed peptide stapling protocol to determine if stapled MK2i peptides showed increased potency, specificity and cell permeability for potential use as a therapeutic in coronary artery bypass grafting.

    • Dunn awarded NSF Graduate Student Research Fellowship in 2014
    • Dunn awarded a Ford Foundation Fellowship in 2014
  • Elly Earlywine - Chemistry, Hope College

    Elly EarlywineEducational Institution: Hope College
    List of Mentors: Dr. Sandra Rosenthal, Emily Jones
    Program: NSF REU Program
    Research Project: Exploring Cytotoxicity of Silica Coated Water-Soluble CdSe Nanocrystals
    Poster: Elly Earlywine Student Poster.pdf
    Research Abstract:
    For this study, red-emission CdSe nanocrystals were prepared and their cytotoxicity was tested. In order for hydrophobic CdSe nanocrystals to be used in biological studies, they must be coated with a water soluble, nontoxic shell such as ligands, polymers, or silica. Using the standard pyrolysis of organometallic reagents, CdSe nanocrystals were prepared and coated with a silica shell by a reverse microemulsion method. UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine the characteristics of the nanocrystals prepared. The CdSe nanocrystals were approximately 4.4nm in diameter. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) colorimetric assay was performed in HELA cells to determine the cytotoxicity of the CdSe nanocrystals. Toxicity of the CdSe nanocrystals was compared to 605 ITK amino quantum dots (Invitrogen). As the assay exhibited, the CdSe quantum dots were more cytotoxic than the 605 ITK amino quantum dots. Improvements in the silica coated nanocrystals still need to be made before their cytotoxicity can be fully tested. Some of the nanocrystals were successfully coated in silica; however, a great deal of aggregation of both the nanocrystals and silica were observed.

    • Conference Presentation
      E. Earlywine, E. Jones, and S.J. Rosenthal, “Exploring Cytotoxicity of Silica Coated Water-Soluble CdSe Nanocrystals,” ACS National Meeting, San Diego, CA, March, 2012.
  • Stephen Filippone - Materials Science, Johns Hopkins University

    Stephen FilipponeEducational Institution: Johns Hopkins University
    List of Mentors: Dr. Florence Sanchez, Lesa Brown
    Program: NSF REU Program
    Research Project: Effect of C-S-H Coated CNFs on the Performance of Cement Paste
    Poster: Stephen Filippone Student Poster.pdf
    Research Abstract:
    Increasing the strength of cement can bring huge benefits to people and the environment. Research has been conducted on the incorporation of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into cement. CNTs and CNFs have properties desirable to make strong and durable cement composites. Although effective means of dispersing fibers in solution have been found, upon adding that solution to cement, the fibers re-agglomerate leading to cement pastes that do not exhibit large enough strength increases to be good composites. The goal of this study was to devise an effective means of preventing the re-agglomeration of CNFs in cement by coating them with synthetic calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) to help the fibers bond better with the cement matrix. An effective way to form C-S-H on the CNFs was first studied using both calcium oxide and silicon dioxide or calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and sodium meta-silicate pentahydrate. The calcium and silica salts were easier to react and were used in the cement pastes that were tested. It was found that the sonication time of the salts in solution affected the consistency of the cement paste. Longer sonication times led to more synthetic C-S-H formed and thicker cement paste that was difficult to pour, leading to a porous material. Less porous cement pastes were made by decreasing the sonication time. SEM coupled with EDS (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) was used to characterize the coating of the CNFs with C-S-H and also the dispersion of the CNFs in the cement matrix. Compression and flexural strength test were conducted on the cement pastes after 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days.

    • Filippone awarded 2014 Gates Cambridge Scholarship
    • Filippone awarded 2013 Goldwater Scholarship
  • Annalisa Fowler - Mechanical Engineering, University of Alabama, Huntsville

    Annalisa FowlerEducational Institution: University of Alabama, Huntsville
    List of Mentors: Dr. Jason Valentine, Joy Garnett
    Program: NSF REU Program
    Research Project: Maxwell Fisheye for Use as an Optical Cross Connect
    Poster: Annalisa Fowler Student Poster.pdf
    Research Abstract:
    The Maxwell fisheye lens is a non-homogenous, aberration free, perfectly focusing lens. This lens focuses light from a point source on the surface of the lens to another point on the opposite side. While the fisheye has been studied in the past for its application in imaging, here we extend its use for chip based photonics. Specifically, we are developing the lens for use as a massively parallel and low-loss optical cross-connect. Our study focuses on creating this lens in a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) architecture which is commonly used in optical circuitry because of its high refractive index contrast. A correlation can be found between modal refractive index and silicon waveguide height by using effective waveguide theory. With grayscale electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching (RIE), a gradient refractive index can be fashioned in the silicon by varying its height, allowing the non homogenous lens to be produced. An important part of this project was developing a precise RIE transfer process with low roughness and accurate pattern transfer from a lithographically defined pattern. This was done by varying the chemistry, power, and pressure of the etch. Based on this work the designed lens can now be fabricated and experimentally characterized for use in on chip photonics applications.

    • Conference Presentation
      J. Garnett, A. Fowler, and J. Valentine, “Maxwell Fisheye Lens as a Waveguide Crossing for Integrated Photonics,” OSA Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/ Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, San Jose, CA, May, 2012.
  • William "Reb" Kornahrens - Chemical Engineering, North Carolina State University

    William "Reb" KornahrensEducational Institution: North Carolina State University
    List of Mentors: Dr. Eva Harth, Benjamin Spears
    Program: NSF-REU
    Research Project: Synthesis and Characterization of Nanosponges for Drug Delivery and Brain Cancer Treatment
    Poster: William Kornahrens Student Poster.pdf
    Research Abstract:
    Degradable 3-D polyester nanoparticles, or nanosponges, have been receiving more attention for their potential biomedical applications. Conventional cancer treatments involve the use of drugs that are toxic to healthy cells as well as tumor cells. A more ideal form of treatment could be facilitated through the use of nanoparticles crosslinked with targeting units, such as peptides, that selectively recognize receptors on the surfaces of tumor cells. Unlike other delivery systems, nanosponges have the advantage of enabling a controlled, linear release of a large amount of drug over a long period of time. In addition, post modification strategies can be utilized to alter several properties of nanosponges, such as hydrophobicity, morphology, particle size, and functionality. We utilized two different linear copolymers for nanoparticle formation: one is poly( valerolactone-allylvalerolactone ) and the other is poly( valerolactone-allylvalerolactone –oxepanedione). These two linear polymers have different morphologies and will be investigated with future in vivo andin vitro drug release studies. In particular, temezolomide, a chemotherapeutic used to treat advanced brain tumors, will be encapsulated inside these nanoparticles and the rate of drug release will be measured with UV-visible spectroscopy. Furthermore, the nanoparticles will be labeled with a fluorescent dye in order to conduct biodistribution studies to determine if they are capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier.

  • Rory Locke - Physics, Middle Tennessee State University

    Rory LockeEducational Institution: Middle Tennessee State University
    List of Mentors: Dr. Sandra Rosenthal, Amy Ng
    Program: NSF TN-SCORE Program
    Research Project: Fabrication of hybrid TiO2-CdSe nano "matchstick" photovoltaic devices
    Poster: Rory Locke Student Poster.pdf
    Research Abstract:
    Sources of alternative energy continue to be a well-studied area of research across the globe. Solar power remains one of the best solutions for future energy requirements; however, low efficiencies and high cost of manufacture are limiting factors of silicon based solar cells. Semiconductor nanocrystal research has introduced many types of nanocrystalline photovoltaic devices,for instance, thin films of dispersed nanocrystals in a conductive polymer. While these devices have less than comparable efficiencies versus silicon-based devices, they remain a viable option for low cost/economically friendly solar cells. In this project, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorods were synthesized, and then a preferential growth of cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanocrystals onto the tips of the nanorods produced “matchstick” nanostructures. Once the desired size and shape of the nanostructures was obtained, electrophoretic deposition was used to align and attach the matchstick nanostructures to a glass/ITO substrate; the photovoltaic device was completed by thermally depositing an aluminum contact on top of the nanorods. Current-voltage curves with then be used to test the efficiency of the device.

  • Carl Merrigan - Physics, William Jewell College

    Carl MerriganEducational Institution: William Jewell College
    List of Mentors: Dr. Richard Haglund, Victor Diez Blanco, Joyeeta Nag
    Program: NSF REU Program
    Research Project: Laser Switching of Thin Films of Vanadium Dioxide
    Poster: Carl Merrigan Student Poster.pdf
    Research Abstract:
    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) undergoes a phase transition from a semiconducting state to a metallic state at a temperature of 68⁰C. This phase transition involves changes in the transparency, conductivity and crystal lattice structure of VO2. VO2 can be switched in several ways, including by heat, by an applied electric field, or by high-power laser irradiation. My project for the summer was to study the behavior of this phase transition in thin films of VO2 being heated by laser irradiation. In order to characterize this thermally induced phase transition, we built an optical pump-probe experiment. We tested three different pump lasers, including a 5 mW 1550 nm laser, an 80 mW 785 nm laser, and a 200 mW 532 nm laser. We also conducted computational simulations in Comsol Multiphysics 4.2 in order to model the laser-induced temperature rise in our samples. This research is a part of a long-term project to design and fabricate an optical switch using VO2. Such switches could eventually be used in high-speed photonic circuitry.

    • Carl was awarded a Fulbright Postdoctoral Fellowship to pursue his research project titled “The Role of Particle Shape and Crowding for Dynamics of Dense Active Materials” at Tel Aviv University, where he will join the research group of Professor Yair Shokef. Awarded 2019-2020
  • Geoffrey Musick - Biochemistry, Lipscomb University

    Geoffrey MusickEducational Institution: Lipscomb University
    List of Mentors: Dr. Yaqiong Xu, Yunhao Cao, Tu Hong
    Program: NSF TN-SCORE Program
    Research Project: Creating a junction between single layer graphene and single layer MoS2
    Poster: Geoff Musick Student Poster.pdf
    Research Abstract:
    The intent of this project is to create a junction between 2-dimensional graphene and MoS2for photovoltaic applications. First efforts have been made to mechanically exfoliate graphene and MoS2from their layer-by-layer bulk materials to SiO2/Si substrates using the scotch tape method. Moreover, optical and Raman microscopes have been used to identify and classify single or few layer graphene and MoS2. Once both samples are successfully cleaved down to the single layer, the goal is to create an overlap between the two single layers by placing a mixture of the two samples on scotch tape to create a single layer junction between two different materials. A Schottky barrier between metallic graphene and semiconducting MoS2will form in this junction. The nanoscale photon-electron conversion of this junction will be investigated via scanning photocurrent measurements.

    • Conference Presentation
      G. Musick*, R. Cioffi, Y. Cao, T. Hong and Y. Xu, “Creating a Junction between Single layer graphene and single layer MOS2” 22nd Annual EPSCoR Conference, Coeur d’Alene, ID, October 2011.
  • Danna Sharp - Biochemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

    Danna SharpEducational Institution: University of Tennessee, Knoxville
    List of Mentors: Dr. Kane Jennings, Gabriel Leblanc, Gongping Chen
    Program: NSF TN-SCORE Program
    Research Project: “Isolation and Deposition of Photosystem II onto Gold Electrodes”
    Poster: Danna Sharp Student Poster.pdf
    Research Abstract:
    Photosystem II (PSII) is a protein found in the thylakoid membranes of phototroph’s chloroplasts. It has the ability to collect energy from light and split water molecules to produce protons, electrons, and oxygen gas. Once an electron is released, it is then excited using solar energy and is passed on through the membrane to be used as an energy source for other cell processes. In this work, a procedure was developed to isolate PSII from spinach chloroplast membranes without the use of an ion exchange column. Oxygen activity was measured in solution using a platinum microelectrode with a Ag/AgCl reference in an airtight electrochemical cell. Different mediators were examined to optimize oxygen gas production. Finally, the isolated PSII proteins were immobilized on planar gold electrodes using self assembled monolayer techniques. The films were analyzed with ellipsometry, IR spectroscopy, and photochronoamperometry. Further research in the development of PSII films will enable the development of PSII bio-hybrid devices which utilize water as a preliminary electron source.

  • Scott Surles - Physics, Middle Tennessee State University

    Scott SurlesEducational Institution: Middle Tennessee State University
    List of Mentors: Dr. Sandra Rosenthal, Scott Neizgoda
    Program: NSF TN-SCORE Program
    Research Project: The Road to Air-Stable Quantum Dot Solar Cells by Way of 1,4-phenylene-bis(dithiocarbamate)
    Poster: Scott Surles Student Poster.pdf
    Research Abstract:
    By harnessing the power of the sun, the rapidly growing field of solar technology offers a great potential for a source of clean and renewable energy. Despite the multitude of possible light harvesting materials, solar cell technology has mainly relied on silicon for the past 60 years. In an effort to design a more low cost, highly efficient alternative to the traditional solar cell, our research implements lead sulfide nanocrystals as light harvesters. Semiconducting nanocrystals are promising candidates for photovoltaics because they offer size-tunable band gaps, notably high extinction coefficients, and facile colloidal synthesis. Traditionally, however, nanocrystals suffer from high amounts of photo-oxidation and electron-hole-pair recombination. In light of this, 1,4-phenylene-bis(dithiocarbamate) (PBDT) is investigated as a possible ligating species which has promise of not only facilitating electron transport due to being fully conjugated, but should also fully passivate the surface of the nanocrystals. This full passivation should render the nanocrystal more resilient to photo-oxidative effects, leading to more air stable devices. In this study, devices are tested routinely over a period of several weeks to monitor the effect that PBDT has on the lead sulfide nanocrystals.

  • Thomas Werfel - Engineering Physics, Murray State University

    Thomas WerfelEducational Institution: Murray State University
    List of Mentors: Dr. Craig Duvall , Dr. Hongmei Li, Brian Evans
    Program: NSF REU Program
    Research Project: "Proximity Activated" smart nanoparticle for the delivery of siRNA to metastatic tumor cells
    Poster: Thomas Werfel Student Poster.pdf
    Research Abstract:
    Permeability-glycoprotein (P-gp) over expression in breast cancer cells desensitizes the tumor to chemotherapeutics and can lead to the development of multiple drug resistance (MDR), significantly worsening patient survival. siRNA presents a powerful tool for silencing P-gp, but in vivo delivery barriers such as endosomal trafficking and off-target cytotoxicity must be overcome to make the treatment feasible. MMP-7 plays a significant role in tissue breakdown and cell migration, and its over expression is a hallmark of tumor progression into metastasis. In this study, an MMP-7 responsive peptide and polyethylene glycol (PEG) cloak were incorporated onto a previously designed smart polymeric nanoparticle (SPN) that contains a cationic corona for condensing siRNA and pH-responsive, endosomolytic core. The cationic corona of the SPN can trigger nonspecific cell uptake in normal tissues. The PEG cloak shields the positive surface charge of the SPNs until being cleaved in MMP-7 rich tumor environments, allowing “proximity activated” delivery of siRNA. “Proximity activated” SPNs were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and have a diameter of ~80nm. Zeta potential measurements of the PEGylated SPNs showed a 3-fold increase in surface charge from 4.1 mV to 12.6 mV after being exposed to MMP-7 over time. Gel electrophoresis showed that the PEGylated SPN condensed siRNA effectively, and furthermore, flow cytometry confirmed MMP-7 dependent cytosolic delivery of siRNA. These results indicate the potential of this carrier design to improve tumor targeting and efficient delivery of siRNA designed to overcome MDR and re-sensitize breast cancers to standard chemotherapeutic regimes.

    • Co-author journal publication
      H. Li, S.S. Yu, M. Miteva, C.E. Nelson, T. Werfel, T.D. Giorgio, C.L. Duvall, “Matrix Metalloproteinase Responsive, Proximity-Activated Polymeric Nanoparticles for siRNA Delivery,” Advanced Functional Materials, 23 (24), 3040-3052 (2013).
    • Conference Presentations
      -T. Werfel, H. Li, C.E. Nelson, C.L. Duvall, “Proximity Activated Smart Nanoparticle for the Delivery of siRNA to Metastatic Tumor Cells,” Biomedical Engineering Society 2011 Annual Meeting, Hartford, CT, October, 2011.|
      -H. Li, T. Werfel, C.E. Nelson, S.S. Yu, T.D. Giorgio, and C.L. Duvall, “Smart Nanoparticle for MMP-7 Proximity-Activated siRNA Delivery,” Society for Biomaterials Sponsored Biomaterials Day at Purdue, West Lafayette, IN, October, 2011.
    • Werfel awarded NSF Graduate Research Fellowship in 2014
  • Jia Jia Zhang - Biomedical Engineering, Harvard University

    Jia Jia ZhangEducational Institution: Harvard University
    List of Mentors: Dr. Kane Jennings, Darlene Gunther
    Program: NSF REU Program
    Research Project: Deposition of Photosystem I onto Graphene for Photoactive Electrodes
    Poster: Jia Jia Zhang Student Poster.pdf
    Research Abstract:
    Thin film, bio-inspired systems utilizing the photoactive protein complex Photosystem I (PSI) hold great promise in advancing solar energy conversion technologies. Monolayer (~7nm) and multilayer (~700nm) films of PSI deposited on conducting electrodes exhibit photocatalytic capabilities when incorporated into electrochemical cells. In this project, I use a vacuum-assisted approach to rapidly assemble monolayer and multilayer films of PSI onto graphene, a one-atom thick carbon material that could one day become ubiquitous in the production of low-cost, transparent, and flexible electronic devices. Cyclic voltammetric experiments demonstrate that increasing PSI film thickness (from bare to monolayer to multilayer PSI) decreases electrode peak currents, confirming the additional adsorption of insulating material onto the surface of graphene. Further, photochronoamperometric measurements show that PSI-coated graphene electrodes exhibit a greatly amplified photoresponse, which varied with redox mediator used, in comparison to a control. Future work in the optimization of graphene-PSI interfaces could lead to improvements in the efficiency and cost of solar devices.

    • Co-author journal publication 
      D. Gunther, G. LeBlanc, D. Prasai, J. Zhang, D.E. Cliffel, and G.K. Jennings, “Photosystem I on Graphene as a Highly Transparent, Photoactive Electrode” Langmuir, 29, 4177-4180 (2013).  
    • Conference Presentation
      J.J. Zhang, D. Gunther, D. Prasai, D. Cliffel, and G.K. Jennings; “Deposition of Photosystem I onto Graphene for Photoactive Electrodes,” 2011 AIChE Meeting, Minneapolis, MN, October, 2011.
    • Zhang awarded NSF Graduate Research Fellowship in 2013