A Cronographical Listing of the Important Events during Goethe's Lifetime

DATES

WAR & POLITICS

SCIENCE, PHILOSOPHY
& EXPLORATION

ART AND LETTERS

1603

 

Champlain's first explorations in New France

 

1605

 

Francis Bacon : Advancement of Learning

 

1607

 

English settlement of James-town in Virginia

 

1610

 

Galileo: Discovery, with aid of telescope, of satellites of Jupiter

Rubens: "Raising of the Cross"

1618-1648

Thirty Years' War, mostly in Germany. Beginning of French preponderance. Last of religious wars.

 

 

1628

Petition of Right in England attempts to limit royal power

Harvey : Circulation of Blood

 

1630

 

 

Poussin : "Triumph of Flora"

1632

 

 

Rembrandt : "Anatomy Lesson"

1635

 

 

French Academy founded

1637

 

Descartes: Discourse on Method

Corneille : The Cid

1639 - 1649

Civil War in British Isles

 

 

1640 - 1680

Frederick William, the Great Elector, in Prussia

 

 

1648

Independence of Netherlands and Switzerland recognized

 

 

1649

Execution of Charles I of England

 

 

1649 - 1653

Civil Wars of the Fronde in France

 

 

1656

 

 

Bernini: Colonnade of St.Peter's Rome

1660

Restoration of monarchy in England (Charles II)

Royal Society (scientific academy) founded in England (c.1660)

 

1660-1715

Personal rule of Louis XIV in France

 

 

1661

 

 

Beginnings of Palace of Versailles

1666

 

Academy of Sciences(French)

 

1667

 

 

Milton: Paradise Lost

1668

 

 

La Fontaine:Fables

1669

 

 

Moliere:Tartuffe

1673

 

 

Wycherley:The Country Wife

1675

 

 

Wren: St. Paul's Cathedral, London

1677

 

 

Racine:Phedre

1668

 

 

Dryden:Absalom and Achitophel

1682

 

La Salle's voyage down the Mississippi

 

1684

 

Leibnitz publishes his version of calculus, dispute with Newton over priority

 

1686

 

Newton: First book of the Principia

 

1688

Glorious Revolution in England. James II dethroned, William III of Orange brought in. Limitation of monarchy and beginnings of parliamentary supremacy.

 

La Fontaine:Fables

1688 - 1697

War of the League of Augsburg

 

 

1690

 

Locke: Essay Concerning Human Understanding

 

1697

 

Bayle: Dictionary

 

1701 - 1714

War of the Spanish Succession. Defeat of France, loss of part of her colonies, and the beginning of British preponderance (See Seven Years' War, 1756 - 1763)

 

 

1704

 

 

Swift: Battle of the Books

1705

 

 

Vanburgh: Blenheim Palace

1706

 

 

Mansart: Dome of the Invalides, Paris

1711

 

Shaftesbury: Characteristics

Poppelmann: Zwinger Palace, Dresden

1714

House of Hanover in England (George I)

 

 

1715

 

 

Pope:The Iliad, Vol. I

1715-74

Louis XV King of France - "After us the deluge"

 

 

1717

 

 

Watteau: "Embarcation for Cythera"

1722

 

 

Bach: Well-tempered Clavichord, Part I

1726-29

 

Voltaire in England

 

1739

 

Hume: Treatise of Human Nature

 

1740-48

War of the Austrian Succession

 

 

1740-80

Maria Theresa, by Pragmatic Sanction, Empress

 

 

1740-86

Frederick II, the Great, King of Prussia

 

 

1742

 

 

Handel:Messiah

1745

 

 

Palace of Sans-Souci, Potsdam

1748

 

Monstesquieu:Spirit of the Laws

 

1751-80

 

La Grande Encyclopedie,35 vols

 

1752

 

Franklin's experiments with electrcity by use of a kite

 

1756-63

Seven Years' War. See War of the Spanish Succession, 1701-14. These two world wars complete the loss to Britian of France's colonial empire and mark the rise of Prussia to hthe status of a great power.

 

 

1757

 

 

Diderot:The Natural Son;Voltaire:Candide

1760-1820

George III King of England

 

 

1762

 

Rousseau:Social Contract

 

1766

 

 

Lessing:Laocoon

1767-69

 

Bouganiville in the Pacific

 

1768-71

 

Cook's first Pacific explorations

 

1770

 

Watt's steam engine "Industrial reveloution" begins in Britain

 

1773

 

 

Haydn: "Maria Theresa Symphony"

1774

 

Priestly: dephlogisticated air(oxygen)

 

1774-93

Louis XVI last King of France of the old regime

 

 

1775

 

 

Beaumarchais:Barber of Seville

1775-83

War of the American Revolution

 

 

1776

 

Adam Smith:Wealth of Nations

 

1776-88

 

 

Gibbon:Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

1777

 

 

Sheridan:School for Scandal

1780-90

 

Lavosier completes Preistley's work to found modern chemistry

 

1781

 

Kant:Critique of Pure Reason

 

1783

 

 

Gainsborough: Potrait of the Duchess of Devonshire

1785-1815

 

Hutton, William Smith, Lamarck found earth sciences

 

1787

American Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia

 

Mozart:Don Giovanni

1787-88

 

The Federalist Papers

 

1789

Beginning of the French Revelution

French Declaration of the Righrs of Man and the Citizen; Bentham:Principles of Morals and Legislation

 

1791

 

 

Boswell:Life of Johnson

1792-1815

Wars of the French Revolution and Napolean, really one world war

 

 

1793

Execution of Louis XVI of France

 

 

1793-94

Reign of Terror

 

 

1795

 

 

David: "Rape of the Sabines"

1799

Napolean seizes power by coup d'etat