The Discovery of Pluto I

Let's take a step back into history and learn more about Pluto, how Pluto was discovered, and about the solar system.

A brief history of relevant events:

300-500 BCE: PreSocratics, Plato, Aristotle establish idea that physical universe is made of four elements: earth, air, fire and water

~330 BCE: Aristotle postulates a fifth element (the quintessence), the aether, as the perfect, unalterable material out of which the perfect heavens were built.  Earth is made of the four imperfect, changable elements.  The Aristotelian Universe model --- Earth is fixed at the center of the universe while the Sun, Moon, planets and stars circle the Earth  --- becomes universally accepted.  Planet defined as a wandering star.  Thus, the Earth is nota planet but the Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn are planets.

100 - 400 CE: ProtoChristians establish Christianity.  The Aristotelian Universe is found to be consistent with accepted translations of scripture and thus becomes part of established teachings of the Church.

1517: Martin Luther begins the Reformation.

1543: The Copernican Universe.  Copernicus argues that the Earth is a planet orbiting the Sun.  Few agree with Copernicus but ultimately this idea would establish the Sun as the immovable object at the center of the Universe and planets as objects that orbit the Sun.  Thus, the Earth becomes a planet and the Moon loses its status as a planet.  Copernicus' ideas opposed by protestant reformers and Roman Catholic Church authorities.

1609: Kepler's 1st and 2nd laws.  The beginning of mathematical physics.

1609: Galileo invents telescope.  Discovers moons of Jupiter, spots on the Sun, craters on the Moon, stars in the Milky Way, phases of Venus. Begins his quest to convince the Roman Catholic Church authorities that Copernicus was correct.

1616: Inquisition bans Copernicanism.

1619: Kepler's 3rd law.

1633: Galileo convicted of heresy.

1685: Newton publishes Principia. Gives mathematical formula for law of gravity. Shows howKepler's laws can be derived from law of gravity.

1695: Edmund Halley uses law of gravity to predict that comets are not one-time objects, but they orbit the sun and return periodically. Predicts the return of a comet in 1758.

1758: Halley's comet returns, found on Dec 25, proving Newton correct in very dramatic fashion.
 

So, c. 1760, Mathematical Physics (e.g. Kepler's laws, Newton's laws) were emphatically understood to be the right way and a powerful set of tools to understand the universe: the universe can be understood through mathematics.

So what other mathematical laws are out there waiting to be discovered?