As National School Choice Week draws to a close, the final topic of the week is student composition and peer effects. One of the points often made by opponents of school choice is that the student body of schools of choice has a different make-up than traditional public schools in the area. Peer effects, the impact of other students at a school on a student’s achievement, should also be considered when examining the effects of school choice on student composition. So, what does the research tell us about these topics?
One concern raised about charter schools has been that they will take the best students and cause traditional public schools to retain the lower-performing students making it harder for them to improve. This perception is examined in Do Charter Schools “Cream Skim” Students and Increase Racial-Ethnic Segregation? by following students as they moved to charter schools in seven sites around the country. Similar concerns about vouchers are explored in Do Vouchers Lead to Sorting Under Random Private School Selection? Evidence from the Milwaukee Voucher Program as well as how a voucher program could be designed to limit sorting by ability but students may still be sorted by parental self-selection. Racial and ability sorting are not the only types of sorting to cause concern. One that is often overlooked is sorting by gender. The Gender Gap in Charter School Attendance finds that charter schools enroll a significantly higher fraction of girls than boys. The paper goes on to explore possible causes for this. Sorting of any type may have consequences. In Magnet Schools and Peers: Effects on Mathematics Achievement, Ballou uses the lottery outcomes for enrollment to measure the effects of peers and finds that peers race and parental income have a substantial impact on achievement. Sorting by race, socio-economic status or gender could have a real impact on the peer effects of a school and in turn student achievement.
Do not let the end of National School Choice Week be the end of your research. Continue to use available research to inform your opinions, and potentially policies and advocacy, on school choice. Check back often for updates on what is happening in the world of school choice and how it relates to the research done here by the National Center on School Choice.
For more information on racial/ethnic and ability sorting, check out these articles: