Scale Descriptions
Current Research
Lab Members

  Parent Choice of Involvement Activities

Parent Choice of Involvement Activities
Last updated: May, 2005

The measure is reported in Walker, Wilkins, Dallaire, Sandler and Hoover-Dempsey (2005) and in Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler (2005). It was adapted from work by Epstein and Salinas (1993) and by Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, Jones & Reed (2002). The measure is divided into two scales, Child-Specific Involvement and School-General Involvement. Overall, it assesses parents’ choice of involvement activities or forms in children’s education.

The measure employs a six-point, Likert-type frequency scale: 1=Never, 2=1 or 2 times this year, 3-4 or 5 times this year, 4=Once a week, 5=A few times a week, 6=Daily.

Alpha reliability for the two scales as reported in Walker et al. (2005) and Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler (2005) was .85 for the Child-Specific Involvement scale and .82 for the School-General scale.

Participants were asked to respond to the following prompt:
“Parent and families do many different things when they are involved in their children’s education. We would like to know how true the following things are for you and your family. Please think about the current school year as you read and respond to each item.”

Child-Specific Involvement

Some one in this family…
…talks with this child about the school day.
…supervises this child’s homework.
…helps this child study for tests.
…practices spelling, math or other skills with this child.
…reads with this child.

School-General Involvement

Some one in this family…
…helps out at this child’s school.
…attends special events at school.
…volunteers to go on class field trips.
…attends PTA meetings.
…goes to the school’s open-house.


Epstein, J.L., & Salinas, K.C. (1993). School and family partnerships: Surveys and summaries. Baltimore, MD: Center on Families, Communities, Schools and Children's Learning, Johns Hopkins University.

Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., Walker, J.M.T., Jones, K.P., & Reed, R.P. (2002). Teachers Involving Parents (TIP): An in-service teacher education program for enhancing parental involvement. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18 (7), 1-25.

Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., & Sandler, H.M. (2005). Final Performance Report for
OERI Grant # R305T010673: The Social Context of Parental Involvement: A
Path to Enhanced Achievement.
Presented to Project Monitor, Institute of
Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, March 22, 2005.

Walker, J. M. T., Wilkins, A. S., Dallaire, J. P., Sandler, H. M., &
Hoover-Dempsey, K. V. (2005). Parental involvement:  Model revision through scale development. Elementary School Journal, 106(2); 85-104.

The Family-School Partnership Lab is part of the Psychology and Human Development Department, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University.