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  Academic Self-Efficacy

Student Self-Report of Academic Self-Efficacy
Last updated: May, 2005

This scale assesses student beliefs about personal abilities to complete schoolwork successfully. The scale was based on and adapted from related work, including Bandura (1997), Patrick, Hicks and Ryan (1997), Roeser, Midgley and Urdan (1996), and Ryan and Patrick (2001). It was used during our recent three-year study of the parental involvement process, as reported in Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler (2005).  

The scale employed a four-point Likert-type response scale: 1 = not true, 2 = a little true, 3 = pretty true, 4 = very true.

Alpha reliability for the scale administered to a sample of 358 public school students in grades 4-6 was .71, as reported in Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler (2005).

Students were asked to respond to the following prompt:
“Dear Student, Students have many different ideas about school and homework. Please tell us how true each of the following ideas are for you. There are no right or wrong answers. The right answer is the answer that is most true for you. Your parents and teachers will NOT see what you say. Thank you!”

I can do even the hardest homework if I try.
I can learn the things taught in school.
I can figure out difficult homework. 


Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman.

Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., & Sandler, H.M. (2005). Final Performance Report for
OERI Grant # R305T010673: The Social Context of Parental Involvement: A
Path to Enhanced Achievement.
Presented to Project Monitor, Institute of
Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, March 22, 2005.

Patrick, H., Hicks, L. & Ryan, A.M. (1997). Relations of perceived social efficacy and social goal pursuit to self-efficacy for academic work. Journal of Early Adolescence, 17, 109-128.

Roeser, R.W., Midgley, C., & Urdan, T. (1996). Perceptions of the school psychological environment and early adolescents’ psychological and behavioral functioning in school: The mediating role of goals and belonging. Journal of Educational Psychology 88(3), 408-422.

Ryan, A.M., & Patrick, H. (2001). The classroom social environment and changes in adolescents’ motivation and engagement during middle school. American Educational Research Journal, 38, 437-460.

The Family-School Partnership Lab is part of the Psychology and Human Development Department, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University.