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  Student Report of Parent Modeling

Student Report of Parent’s Use of Modeling
Last updated: May, 2005

This scale assesses the extent to which a student perceives that his or her parent (or other family member identified by the student) encourages student behaviors, interests, and beliefs conducive to achievement during a representative parental involvement activity, monitoring or helping the student with homework. The scale was adapted from Martinez-Pons (1996) and reported in Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler (2005). It includes items in the Parental Report of Modeling Scale, altered as appropriate for student perspective and response.

The scale employed a four-point Likert-type scale: 1 = not true, 2 = a little true, 3 = pretty true, 4 = very true.

The scale achieved an alpha reliability of .75 as administered to a sample of 358 public school students in grades 4-6 (Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler, 2005). 

Students were asked to respond to the following prompt:
“Dear Student, Families do many different things when they help children with school. Please think about how your family helps you with school and fill in the circle that matches what is most true for them. Thank you!”

The person in my family who usually helps me with my homework…
… likes to learn new things.
…wants to learn as much as possible.
…likes to solve problems.
…enjoys figuring things out.
…knows how to solve problems.
…tries a different way if he or she has trouble solving a problem.
…doesn’t give up when things get hard.
…can learn new things.
…asks other people for help when a problem is hard to solve.
…can explain what he or she thinks to other people.


Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., & Sandler, H.M. (2005). Final Performance Report for
OERI Grant # R305T010673: The Social Context of Parental Involvement: A
Path to Enhanced Achievement.
Presented to Project Monitor, Institute of
Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, March 22, 2005.

Martinez-Pons, M. (1996). Test of a model of parental inducement of academic self-regulation. Journal of Experimental Education, 64, 213-227.

The Family-School Partnership Lab is part of the Psychology and Human Development Department, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University.