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  Student Report of Parent Encouragement

Student Report of Parent’s Use of Encouragement
Last updated: May, 2005
This scale assesses the extent to which a student perceives that his or her parent (or other family member identified by the student) encourages student behaviors, interests, and beliefs conducive to achievement during a representative parental involvement activity, monitoring or helping the student with homework. The scale was adapted from Martinez-Pons (1996) and reported in Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler (2005). It includes items in the Parental Report of Encouragement Scale, altered as appropriate for student perspective and response.

The scale employed a four-point Likert-type scale: 1 = not true, 2 = a little true, 3 = pretty true, 4 = very true.

The scale achieved an alpha reliability of .87 as administered to a sample of 358 public school students in grades 4-6 (Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler, 2005). 

Students were asked to respond to the following prompt:
“Dear Student, Families do many different things when they help children with school. Please think about how your family helps you with school and fill in the circle that matches what is most true for them. Thank you!”

The person in my family who usually helps me with my homework encourages me…
…when I don't feel like doing my schoolwork.
…when I have trouble organizing my schoolwork.
…to be aware of how I'm doing with my schoolwork.
…to try new ways to do schoolwork when I'm having a hard time.
…when I have trouble doing my schoolwork.
…to look for more information about school subjects.
…to develop an interest in schoolwork.
…to believe that I can do well in school.
…to believe that I can learn new things.
…to ask the teacher for help when a problem is hard to solve.
…to follow the teacher’s directions.
…to explain what I think to the teacher


Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., & Sandler, H.M. (2005). Final Performance Report for
OERI Grant # R305T010673: The Social Context of Parental Involvement: A
Path to Enhanced Achievement.
Presented to Project Monitor, Institute of
Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, March 22, 2005.

Martinez-Pons, M. (1996). Test of a model of parental inducement of academic self-regulation. Journal of Experimental Education, 64, 213-227.


The Family-School Partnership Lab is part of the Psychology and Human Development Department, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University.