Parental Report of Reinforcement
Last updated: May, 2005
This scale assesses parent self-reports of parental reinforcement behaviors
with the child. The scale was adapted from Martinez-Pons (1996) and was used
during our recent three-year study of the parental involvement process (Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler, 2005
The scale employed a six-point Likert-type response scale: 1 = not at all
true, 2 = a little bit true, 3 = somewhat true, 4 = often true, 5 = mostly
true, 6 = completely true.
Alpha reliability for the scale with a sample of 358 parents of public school
students in grades 4-6 was .96, as reported in Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler
Parents were asked to respond to the following prompt:
“Parents and families do many different things when they help their children
with schoolwork. We would like to know how true the following things are
for you and your family when you help your child with schoolwork. Please
think about the current school year as you read and respond to each item.”
We show this child we like it when he or she …
|… wants to learn new
|... tries to learn as
much as possible.
| ... has a good attitude
about doing his or her homework.
| ... keeps working on
homework even when he or she doesn’t feel like it.
|... asks the teacher
|... explains what he
or she thinks to the teacher.
|... explains to us what
he or she thinks about school.
|... works hard on homework.
|... understands how to
|... sticks with a problem
until he or she solves it.
|... organizes his or
| ... checks his or her
|... finds new ways to
do schoolwork when he or she gets stuck.
Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., & Sandler,
H.M. (2005). Final Performance Report for
OERI Grant # R305T010673: The Social Context of Parental Involvement:
Path to Enhanced Achievement. Presented to Project Monitor,
Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, March 22, 2005.
Martinez-Pons, M. (1996). Test of a model of parental inducement of
academic self-regulation. Journal of Experimental Education,