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  Parental Instruction

Parental Report of Instruction
Last updated: May, 2005

This scale assesses parent self-reports of instructional behaviors with children during the course of involvement activities. The scale was adapted from Martinez-Pons (1996) and was used during our recent three-year study of the parental involvement process (Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler, 2005).  

The scale employed a six-point Likert-type response scale: 1 = not at all true, 2 = a little bit true, 3 = somewhat true, 4 = often true, 5 = mostly true, 6 = completely true.

Alpha reliability for the scale when used with a sample of 358 parents of public school students in grades 4-6 was .92, as reported in Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler (2005).

Parents were asked to respond to the following prompt:
“Parents and families do many different things when they help their children with schoolwork. We would like to know how true the following things are for you and your family when you help your child with schoolwork. Please think about the current school year as you read and respond to each item.”

We teach this child …
… to go at his or her own pace while doing schoolwork.
... to take a break from his or her work when he or she gets frustrated.
... how to check homework as he or she goes along.
... how to get along with others in his or her class.
... to follow the teacher’s directions.
... how to make his or her homework fun.
... how to find out more about the things that interest him or her.
... to try the problems that help him or her learn the most.
... to have a good attitude about his or her homework.
... to keep trying when he or she gets stuck.
... to stick with his or her homework until he or she finishes it.
... to work hard.
... to talk with the teacher when he or she has questions.
... to ask questions when he or she doesn’t understand something.
... to make sure he or she understands one part before going onto the next.


Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., & Sandler, H.M. (2005). Final Performance Report for
OERI Grant # R305T010673: The Social Context of Parental Involvement: A
Path to Enhanced Achievement.
Presented to Project Monitor, Institute of
Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, March 22, 2005.
Martinez-Pons, M. (1996). Test of a model of parental inducement of academic self-regulation. Journal of Experimental Education, 64, 213-227.

The Family-School Partnership Lab is part of the Psychology and Human Development Department, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University.