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  Specific Invitations to Involvement from School or Teacher

Parental Perceptions of Specific Teacher or School Invitations to Involvement
Last updated: May, 2005

The scale, reported in Walker, Wilkins, Dallaire, Sandler & Hoover-Dempsey (2005) was developed during a three-year study of the parental involvement process (Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler, 2005). To create the measure, we identified six common involvement behaviors that represent home-based activities (e.g., communicating with the child about the school day, helping the child with homework, supervising the child’s homework) and school-based activities (e.g., helping out at the school, communicating with the teacher, attending special events at the school). The measure thus assesses parents’ perceptions of specific invitations from teacher(s) or school in these representative areas of parental involvement.

The scale employed a six-point Likert-type response scale: 1 = never; 2 = 1 or 2 times; 3 = 4 or 5 times; 4 = once a week; 5 = a few times a week; 6 = daily.

Alpha reliability reported by Walker et al. (2005; see also Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler, 2005) was .81.

Participants were asked to respond to the following prompt:
“Dear Parent, please indicate HOW OFTEN the following have happened since the beginning of this school year.”

My child’s teacher asked me or expected me to help my child with homework?
My child’s teacher asked me or expected me to supervise my child’s homework?
My child’s teacher asked me to talk with my child about the school day?
My child’s teacher asked me to attend a special event at school?
My child’s teacher asked me to help out at the school?
My child’s teacher contacted me (for example, sent a note, phoned, e-mailed?)


Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., & Sandler, H.M. (2005). Final Performance Report for
OERI Grant # R305T010673: The Social Context of Parental Involvement: A
Path to Enhanced Achievement
. Presented to Project Monitor, Institute of
Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, March 22, 2005.

Walker, J. M. T., Wilkins, A. S., Dallaire, J. P., Sandler, H. M., &
Hoover-Dempsey, K. V. (2005). Parental involvement:  Model revision through scale development. Elementary School Journal, 106(2); 85-104.

The Family-School Partnership Lab is part of the Psychology and Human Development Department, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University.