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   Introduction

Our original model of the parental involvement process (Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler, 1995, 1997) is included below [“Original Model,” in blue]). Work completed in our lab since the model was published has suggested several revisions. These revisions are summarized below in the “Current/Revised Model” (below, in yellow); they are described more fully in Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler (2005) and in Walker, Wilkins, Dallaire, Sandler, & Hoover-Dempsey (2005; see also Hoover-Dempsey, Battiato, Walker, Reed, DeJong, & Jones, 2001; Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, Jones & Reed, 2002; Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, Sandler, Whetsel, Green, Wilkins, & Closson, 2005). On-going work in our lab is focused on further examination of constructs and relationships included in the Current/Revised model.

   Current/Revised Model

The Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler Model of Parental Involvement (2005)


Level 5
Student Achievement (Varied Summary Measures)


Level 4
Student Proximal Attributes Conducive to Achievement, e.g.:
Academic Self-Efficacy
Intrinsic Motivation to Learn 
Self-Regulatory Strategy  Knowledge & Use 
Social Self-Efficacy for Relating to  Teachers 


Level 3
(Mediated by) Student Perception of Learning Mechanisms Engaged by Parents
Encouragement
Modeling
Reinforcement
Instruction


Level 2
Learning Mechanisms Engaged by Parents during Involvement Activities, e.g.:
Encouragement
Modeling
Reinforcement
Instruction



Parent Involvement Forms, e.g.:
Values, Goals, Expectations, Aspirations

Involvement Activities at Home

Parent/Teacher/School Communications
Involvement Activities at School


Level 1
Personal Motivators
Parents' Perception of Contextual Invitations to Involvement
School/Program Responsiveness to Family Life Context Variables
Parental
Role Construction for Involvement
Parental Efficacy for Helping the Student Succeed
General  Invitations from School/Program
Specific  Invitations from Teacher
Specific  Invitations from Student
Parental Knowledge and Skills
Parental Time and Energy


Family Culture

Click here to download the current/revised model in Microsoft Word format.  A PDF file of the Model is also available. PDF files may be better for printing purposes. Many computers already have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which allows you to open these files. However, if your computer does not, a free copy is available at the Adobe Web Site for both Windows and Macintosh platforms. Please contact manya.c.whitaker@vanderbilt.edu with any requests if you have difficulty obtaining documents from our site.
 
     The Original Model

The Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler (1995, 1997) Model of Parental Involvement


LEVEL 5: Child/Student Outcomes
Skills and Knowledge
Efficacy for Doing Well in School

 




LEVEL 4: Tempering/Mediating Variables
Parents' Use of Developmentally Appropriate Involvement Strategies
Fit between Parents' Involvement Actions & School Expectations




LEVEL 3:  Mechanisms through which Parent Involvement Influences Child/Student Outcomes
Modeling
Reinforcement
Instruction
Close-Ended
Open-Ended




LEVEL 2: Parents' Choice of Involvement Forms
Influenced by:
Specific Domains of Parents' Skills & Knowledge
Mix of Demands on Total Time & Energy from:
Specific Invitations and Demands for Involvement from:
Other Family Demands
Employment Demands
Child(ren)
School/Teacher(s)




LEVEL 1: Parental Involvement Decision
(The Parent's Positive Decision to Become Involved) Influenced by:
Parent's Construction of the Parental Role
Parent's Sense of Efficacy for Helping Child(ren) Succeed in School
General Opportunities and Demands for Parental Involvement Presented by:
The Parent's Child(ren)
Child(ren)'s School(s)


Click here to download the original model in Microsoft Word format. A PDF file of the Model is also available. PDF files may be better for printing purposes. Many computers already have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which allows you to open these files. However, if your computer does not, a free copy is available at the Adobe Web Site for both Windows and Macintosh platforms. Please contact manya.c.whitaker@vanderbilt.edu with any requests if you have difficulty obtaining documents from our site.


References

Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., & Sandler, H.M. (2005). Final Performance Report for OERI Grant #R305T010673: The Social Context of Parental Involvement: A Path to Enhanced Achievement. Presented to Project Monitor, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, March 22, 2005.

Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., Walker, J.M.T., Sandler, H.M., Whetsel, D., Green, C.L., Wilkins, A.S., & Closson, K.E. (2005). Why do parents become involved? Research findings and implications. Elementary School Journal, 106(2); 105-130

Walker, J.M., Wilkins, A.S., Dallaire, J., Sandler, H.M., & Hoover-Dempsey, K.V. (2005). Parental involvement: Model revision through scale development. Elementary School Journal, 106(2); 85-104

Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., Walker, J.M., Jones, K.P., & Reed, R.P. (2002). Teachers Involving Parents (TIP): An in-service teacher education program for enhancing parental involvement. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18(7), 843-867.

Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., Battiato, A.C., Walker, J.M., Reed, R.P., DeJong, J., & Jones, K.P. (2001). Parental involvement in homework. Educational Psychologist, 36(3), 195-209.

Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., & Sandler, H.M. (1997). Why do parents become involved in their children's education?  Review of Educational Research, 67, 3-42.

Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., & Sandler, H.M. (1995). Parental involvement in children's education: Why does it make a difference? Teachers College Record, 97, 310-331.






The Family-School Partnership Lab is part of the Psychology and Human Development Department, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University.