EAP 255: Creating a digital archive of Afro-Colombian history and culture: black ecclesiastical, governmental and private records from the Chocó, Colombia
Project Director: Dr. Pablo Gómez, University of Wisconsin
With the support of a British Library Endangered Archives Grant (EAP 255) , this project has recovered, catalogued, digitized and made freely available to researchers through the internet, approximately 100,000 ecclesiastic, governmental and personal records of African and Afro-descendant communities in the Chocó region of Western Colombia.
Thousands of African slaves were forcibly transported to the Chocó to exploit the gold and silver mines in the basin of the Atrato River. The Afro-descendant communities of the Chocó live in one of the poorest and more dangerous areas of Colombia, and of the entire Americas. There, not only paramilitaries and guerrillas, but also the brutal conditions of the tropical forest in which most of the territory is located, have damaged centuries of church and official records going back to the fifteenth century. Probably more than in any other place in America, the surviving records in the Chocó were in imminent danger of being lost forever, making the preservation of these records urgent. In peril were materials dating from the sixteenth to the early twentieth centuries that hold the memory of the most African region in the Americas. The history of this population has been, for the most part, ignored in Colombian and Latin American historiography and is waiting to be written. The documents rescued represent the longest, and most uniform, serial data available for the study of Afro-Colombians. Furthermore, they hold the only available systematic data on African ethnicities in Colombia, information of use for nations in West and West Central Africa who lost populations to the slave trade.
The archival materials digitized through this project include those of the First Notary of Quibdó, the Notary of Buenaventura, the Parochial Archive of Tadó and the Parochial Archive of Novitá. The project will also digitize the badly deteriorated records of the San Francisco de Asissi Cathedral in Quibdó, capital of the Chocó. The documents in these local churches and notarial offices were uncatalogued and piled on floors or open shelves in rooms without climate or humidity control. Clerks often discarded these treasures as “old papers.” At least 5% of the documents overall were in a very advanced state of deterioration, and 50% showed some degree of deterioration. Particularly problematic were the records of the Notary of Buenaventura. Probably more than in any other place in America, the surviving records in the Chocó were in imminent danger of being lost forever due to the region’s extreme tropical climate and the volatile socio-economic conditions of the Chocó.
The Centro Nacional de Documentación y Estudios de las Culturas Afrocolombianas (National Center for the Documentation and Studies of the Afrocolombians cultures, hereafter, CNDECA) at the Technological University of the Chocó (TUC), in the department capital, Quibdó, spent three years locating material in urgent need of preservation throughout the western Colombian Pacific Coast. This institution, however, did not have the resources or technical knowledge to organize, digitize, and preserve the thousands of folios in immediate danger of disappearance that they located. The British Library project combined the local knowledge and identification of archives in the Chocó by the people from the CNDECA, with the know-how of a team already experienced in Cuba and Brazil in the preservation of colonial documents related to the African Diaspora---the ESSSS project directed by Jane Landers , at Vanderbilt University.
Funding from the British Library enabled experts from Texas Christian University, Vanderbilt University, and Michigan State University to train local historians, archivists and university students from the Chocó in paleography, transcription, basic preservation and digitization techniques, and basic collections and grant management. Once trained, team members from the Chocó created high-resolution digital images that have now been stored on multiple drives, copied on disk and magnetic tape to ensure their long term preservation, and made available via Vanderbilt Library’s Digital Collections webpage.
Top of page: Scene from a 2009 workshop in Quibdó. Above, right: Aerial view of Chocó, Colombia, 2009. Photos by David C. LaFevor.