Abingdon Press

The general style of the GBC is similar to the one treated in The Chicago Manual of Style (13th ed.) as style B (16.5). Questions of detail not covered in this document should be checked with The Chicago Manual of Style (13th ed) under examples of style B.


    The abbreviations for biblical books should be as follows in the table under 6. Abbreviations for other ancient texts, modern periodicals or series, and standard reference works will be rare due to the fact that the GBC is aimed at readers in a diversity of fields, students, and lay people. Use full reference/title in your article; the editorial board will decide which ones need to be abbreviated. (If an ancient text is merely used in one essay, there is no point in abbreviating the reference! (The editors will use the JBL style sheet.)

    Note: For chapter(s) use "chap(s)." and for verse(s) use "v(v)." both being followed by a period (see JBL "Instructions" 8.2, 8.3, and 8.4).

    The abbreviations "i.e." and "e.g." should not be followed by a comma.


    There will be NO footnotes. References to the bibliography should be done in the text as follows.

  The point of documentation is to lead the reader to the proper item in the "Bibliography." Documentation references are to be incorporated into the text in the briefest form possible. Elements of reference not included in the text should be enclosed in parentheses within the sentence in which the reference appears.

     Name of Author mentioned in the text, when there is only one work listed in the "Short Bibliography" and no page reference; nothing is needed in the text.

     Name of Author mentioned in the text, only one work listed in the "Short Bibliography" and a page reference needed; give page reference thus: (56).

    Name of the Author mentioned in the text, more than one work listed in the "Short Bibliography": give year and page reference thus: (1974:56).

     Author not mentioned in the text, only one work listed in "Short Bibliography," give author and page thus: (Roberts: 56).

     Author not mentioned in the text, more than one work listed in "Short Bibliography," give author, year, and page thus: (Bultmann, 1963:56).

     Author not mentioned in the text, more than one work listed in the "Short Bibliography," no page reference, thus: (Roberts, 1974).

     Two or more works by the same author, thus: (Bultmann, 1963:56, 1964a:56, 1964b:56).

   A mixture of items, thus: (Barthes, 101; Beardslee, 1970b:70; Crossan, 1973; Bultmann, 1963:56-66).


    The Short Bibliography should be limited to 5 to 10 works (books or articles) which form the immediate background for the essay and/or are part of the documentation. It is perfectly appropriate to list works to which specific reference is not made, providing one wishes to announce the use of those works in some more or less general sense or to direct the reader to them for greater background or perspective.

    Bibliographical entries should be as full as possible. Give full first names of authors, give names of editors and translators, give full series information, full publication data.

    In "Short Bibliography," entries should appear in alphabetical order by author; author's last name should be flush with the left margin, followed by given names; the publication date of the work is given indented under the author's name; the title of the entry is further indented on that same line and this indentation is maintained for as many lines as the title needs. If there is more than one entry for an author, that author's entries should be ordered chronologically from the earliest to the latest work. If there are two or more entries for a single author in a given year, those entries are alphabetized by title, and the letters a, b, c, etc., appended to the year.

    In bibliography use the following order;

           (1) books by author in chronological order (from the earliest to the latest work);

           (2) books edited by that author;

           (3) books edited by that author and another.

    Please note the following:

Author(s): At least one given name should be spelled out; if more than one author, the first is reversed but the others are not (e.g. Smith, Ronald D. and Robert Blanche).

Editor(s): If this comes before the title of the book, it should appear as "ed." or "eds." (no parentheses); if after title, it should be "Ed." which stands for "edited by".

Translator(s): If this comes before the title of the book, it should appear as "trans." (no parentheses); if after the title, it should be "Trans." which stands for "translated by".

Series: Either use the abbreviation for those on JBL list (e.g. VTsup 31) or, for those not on the list and not widely known, use the full title (e.g. English Folklore Monographs 32). No commas before series number in either case.

Article in a book: Following the title of the article or chapter, use: Pp. 245-89 in Title of Book. Ed. Randal J. Fritz.

Facts of publication: Use the shortest designation, e.g. "Fortress" and not "Fortress Press." With university presses, use the full designation, "Harvard University Press" (not Univ.).

Article: title should be in quotes and end with a period; use only volume number and not part number, e.g. 36 and not 36/3; note that volume number is followed by a colon, no space, and then page numbers, e.g. 36:41-67. (NOTE: For article in a Journal, page number is not preceded by Pp.)

Page numbers: See the Chicago Manual of Style 8.67 and 16.108;

         Under 100, use all digits: 3-17, 23-25;

         100 or multiple, use all: 100-103;

         101 to 109, use partial: 104-7, 505-17;

         110 to 199, use two digits: 321-25.



Allen, Richard F.

   1971 Fire and Iron: Critical Approaches to Njals Saga. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Book in a series

Beyerlin, Walter

   1959 Die Kulttraditionen Israels in der Verkundigung des Propheten Micha. FRLANT 72. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck &    Ruprecht.

Book with Editors

Hedrick, Charles W. and Robert Hodgson Jr., eds.

   1986 Nag Hammadi, Gnosticism, and Early Christianity. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson.

Article in a Book

Long, Burke O.

   1977 "Prophetic Authority as Social Reality." Pp. 3-20 in Canon and Authority. Ed. George W. Coats and Burke O. Long. Philadelphia: Fortress.

Article in a Journal

Flanagan, James W.

   1978 "The Relocation of the Davidic Capital." JAAR 46:224-44.


    Due to the fact that the GBC is aimed at readers in a diversity of fields, students, and lay people one cannot presuppose that a great diversity of languages can be easily read by everyone.

    Quotations from foreign language sources (including Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, Coptic, Latin, German, French, Spanish sources, to name a few) are to be limited to a minimum and must be translated in English.

    Parenthetical phrases or words in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek will be exceptional and should be transliterated. For the proper way to transliterate Greek and Hebrew, click here.




 All manuscripts (text, quotations, notes, Short Bibliography) are to be double-spaced.


Hebrew Bible / Old Testament

Gen                 Genesis

Exod               Exodus

Lev                 Leviticus

Num                Numbers

Deut                Deuteronomy

Josh                Joshua

Judg                Judges

Ruth                Ruth

1-2 Sam          1-2 Samuel

  1-2 Kgdms     1-2 Kingdoms (LXX) 1-2 Kgs1-2 Kings

  3-4 Kgdms     3-4 Kingdoms (LXX)

1-2 Chr           1-2 Chronicles

Ezra                Ezra

Neh                 Nehemiah

Esth                Esther

Job                  Job

Ps/Pss             Psalms

Prov                Proverbs

Eccl                Ecclesiastes (or Qoheleth)

Song               Song of Songs (Song of Solomon, or Canticles)

Isa                   Isaiah

Jer                   Jeremiah

Lam                Lamentations

Ezek                Ezekiel

Dan                 Daniel

Hos                 Hosea

Joel                 Joel

Amos              Amos

Obad               Obadiah

Jonah              Jonah

Mic                 Micah

Nah                 Nahum

Hab                 Habakkuk

Zeph               Zehaniah

Hag                 Haggai

Zech                Zechariah

Mal                 Malachi



New Testament


Matt                Matthew

Mark               Mark

Luke               Luke

John                John

Acts                Acts

Rom                Romans

1-2 Cor           1-2 Corinthians

Gal                  Galatians

Eph                 Ephesians

Phil                 Philippians

Col                  Colossians

1-2 Thess        1-2 Thessalonians

1-2 Tim           1-2 Timothy

Titus               Titus

Phlm               Philemon

Heb                 Hebrews

Jas                   James

1-2 Pet            1-2 Peter

1-2-3 John      1-2-3 John

Jude                Jude

Rev                 Revelation


Apocrypha and Septuagint


Bar                  Baruch

Add Dan         Additions to Daniel

  Pr Zaar           Prayer of Azariah

  Bel                 Bel and the Dragon

   Sg Three       Song of the Three Young Men    SusSusanna

1-2 Esd           1-2 Esdras

Add Esth         Additions to Esther

Ep Jer             Epistle of Jeremiah

Jdt                   Judith

1-2 Macc        1-2 Maccabees

3-4 Macc        3-4 Maccabees

Pr Man            Prayer of Manasseh

Ps 151             Psalm 151

Sir                   Sircah/Ecclesiasticus

Tob                 Tobit

Wis                 Wisdom of Solomon


For the proper way to transliterate Greek and Hebrew, click here.