FIBER SUPPLEMENTS:

For Weight Loss and the Maintenance of Good Health

Britt Farwick


Index - Click to read a section

I. Research Found on the World Wide Web

II. Research From Scientific Literature:

Conclusion:

References

I. Research Found on the World Wide Web

A. Purpose of treatment:

Fiber supplements benefit the body through maintaining regularity in the digestive system. Fiber supplements assist the body in compensating for fiber deficiencies when there remains an inadequate amount of fiber in the digestive system. In addition, fiber supplements help to relieve constipation. Fiber can become an aid in weight reduction as well. In all fiber supplements assist in the maintenance of good health and nutrition.

B. Rationale of fiber supplements:

After eating, one does not digest the total amount of food that they consume. Fiber becomes indigestible because of a certain class of a plant called cellulose. Ground up psyllium seeds, water absorbing particles, constitute the main component of commercial fiber supplements (Enker). A tablespoon, a bar, or certain class of pill contributes to approximately seventy-five percent of the recommended intake, or fifteen grams (Enker). One should take fiber supplements at night, and after a meal. Through regular use, the bowel can function in a regular, methodical manner. Fiber supplements help create roughage, and roughage then aids in discarding the body's toxins and wastes in the digestive tract. Fiber mixes with the stool, takes in liquid and increases into a "gel bead" (Enker). The stool then becomes moisturized through the gel bead, therefore relieving the colon. For this process to work, one must take these fiber supplements with an ample amount of water for absorption, thus accumulating mucous and acting as a lubricant.

There remain two classifications of fiber, insoluble and soluble, which have various physiologic effects. Insoluble fibers do not hold water. Insoluble fiber also increases intestinal conveyance, increases fecal weight, retards starch hydrolyses, and slows glucose intake. Water-soluble fiber soaks up water, increases, and adheres to bile acids. Because they emerge with bile acids, they become discharged; thus reducing insidious cholesterol and triglycerides into the blood. Fiber supplement manufacturers claim that insoluble fiber can reduce serum cholesterol, however it does not benefit the body in the most effective manner. They claim that soluble fiber remains the most efficient type of fiber because it becomes simple to digest and aids in converting the fiber into a gel. This gel then assists in making the other nutrients in the fiber supplements remain in the body for an extended period of time. This process helps to avoid dehydration. Furthermore, manufacturers believe that soluble fiber creates a "full feeling" because the fiber expands in the stomach. Fiber supplements, which constitute both soluble and insoluble fiber, then help to reduce the risk of colon cancer, lower serum cholesterol, act like an appetite suppressant, and become an aid in fat absorption. Fiber supplements also decrease the deterioration of bowel habits.

C. Claims made about the effectiveness of this treatment:

Many fact sheets which do not sell fiber supplements support the use of fiber supplements. The Pacific Health, L.L.C. fact sheet, (http://www.pachealth.com/phlfiber.htm), declares that insoluble fiber can reduce the risk of constipation, colon or bowel cancer, and diverticulosis. They claim that soluble fiber can reduce the amount of cholesterol in the blood. Another fact sheet created by a nutritionist, Joanne Larsen, (http://www.dietitian.com/fiber.html), makes comparable conclusions. Nonetheless, she believes that fiber supplements, such as FiberCon, can reduce snacking between meals because FiberCon expands within the stomach. The American Dietetic Association fact sheet (http://www.eatright.org/nfs25.html), expresses that dietary fiber also reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. The Arizona Cancer Center fact sheet (http://www.azcc.ari..LON_HIGH) states that a high-fiber diet will contribute to a low-fat diet. The Dietary Fiber Technology fact sheet (http://www.hoptechno.com/b) declares that dietary fiber promotes normal elimination of the bowel. The Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center fact sheet (http://www.jhbmc.jh...gy/rehab/fiber.html) claims that dietary fiber prevents the risk of heart disease. In addition, the fact sheet created by FHP Health Care states that dietary supplements help to control sugar levels in the blood for diabetics through "dampening the insulin response" to carbohydrates. The Preventive Medicine Center fact sheet (http://www.prevmedctr.org/hifiber3.html), declares that dietary fiber can aid in weight reduction. Dr. Warren Enker, Chief, Division of Colorectal Surgery (http://www.bimc.edu...e/dietaryfiber.html) produced a fact sheet that asserts that fiber supplements become an excellent alternative source of fiber. Adam Poole (http://www.ycmhs.ed...tion/curt/fiber.htm) conducted research about dietary fiber. He declares that the lack of dietary fiber may cause appendicitis, varicose veins, gallstones, hiatus hernia, phlebitis, intestinal polyps, and hemorrhoids. Linda Boeckner, Extension Nutrition Specialist (http://ianrww.unl....EBFACTS/NF92-62.HTM) declares in her fact sheet on the world wide web that the intake of dietary fiber will aid in controlling diabetes. A fact sheet which contains research from the University of Denver (http://kauai.cudenver.edu:3010/nutrition.dir/fiber.html) believes that dietary fiber will reduce the risk of colon cancer. Moreover, these fact sheets from the world wide web make similar claims, and various fact sheets emphasize different attributes respecting dietary fiber and fiber supplements.

Many ads can be found on the world wide web which claim that their respective fiber supplements can perform favorable results in the body. The first ad, "Fat Binder With Absorbitol" (http://www.healthdy...s.com/wwdesc4.html) claims that their capsules, a patented fiber composed of "Chitosan," an amalgam of shellfish shells, can remove fat from the body. Absorbitol claims to lower the appetite, reduce cholesterol, discard toxins from the body, aid in decreasing carbohydrates on the glycemic response, and decrease the risk of colorectal cancer. The second ad, "Sensatiables Bars," asserts that their peach fiber snack bars, will "trim those extra pounds" (http://www.all-natural.com/7002p.html). Sensatiables Bars will also replace a meal for the day and discourage the body from the desire to overeat. "ChitoRich, The Amazing Fat Binder," promises to aid in weight reduction through burning fat from the hips, thighs and "other unwanted storage areas" (http://www1.grolen....sandyr/default.htm). ChitoRich can be used as tea, or come in the form of pills. Another fiber supplement, "Chitosan," a powder constituted from shells of crustaceans, alleges that the powder functions as a "fat sponge" (http:www.all-natural.com/chitorch.html). Chitosan will also increase satiety and help the body to create normal digestive functions. An additional fiber supplement, "PowerBar," claims to produce a "full feeling" and thus becomes a meal replacement product (http://powerbar.com/win/powerbar/nutri_fiber.html). The ad further states that its produce can reduce levels of serum cholesterol. "LiFiber," another fiber supplement, composed of powder that contains twenty-nine various herbs, claims that its fiber supplement induces weight loss, reduces blood cholesterol, and aids in reducing toxins in the colon (http://www.all-natural.com/10456p.html). In conclusion, the ads in the world wide web emphasize that the intake of fiber supplements will cause weight reduction, generate a "full" feeling, and dispose fat from the body.

D. Evidence offered in support of the claim and safety features in the fact sheets:

Numerous fact sheets use evidence in support of their claims. However, Pacific Health L.L.C. does not offer any evidence. Joanne Larsen, in her fact sheet, refers to "researchers," but does not state the names of these researchers. Larsen states that research indicates that insoluble fiber decreases colon cancer and diverticulosis, while soluble fiber reduces blood cholesterol; benefiting diabetics as there becomes a decrease in lower blood sugar.

Larsen also refers to "research" that supports the claim that a high-fiber diet has an effect on decreasing the risk of diverticulosis. In reference to safety, Larsen claims that a high-fiber diet does not benefit persons with colitis.

The American Dietetic Association refers to twenty-one references in support of their claims. The ADA offers evidence through scientific journals, reports from the U.S. Surgeon General, and other reputable organizations and journals. Through the aforementioned sources of evidence, the ADA supports their numerous claims regarding the numerous benefits of fiber: it delays gastric emptying, decreases serum cholesterol, and decreases glucose absorption. There remains evidence that one should have twenty to thirty-five grams of dietary fiber per day. In addition, ADA utilizes evidence to prove that fiber decreases diverticular diseases, dietary fat reduction, decreases the risk of colon cancer, reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and obesity, improves glcymeic control, reduces insulin, increases satiety, and has a triglyceride-lowering effect. According to the research of ADA, there remains few safety features concerning the use of fiber. For example, the ADA states that the American Academy of Pediatrics does not advocate the use of dietary fiber for infants less than one year. Another concern remains that the "bioavailablility" of minerals and vitamins may become decreased through the use of dietary fiber.

The Arizona Cancer Center does not refer to any research.

The Dietary Fiber Technology fact sheet supports its statements through stating that the United States Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services, the National Cancer Institute, and that the Federal Government agree with their suggestion that the use of fiber remains integral in contributing to good health.

The Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center claims that the United States Surgeon General complies with their recommendations of dietary fiber; one should obtain twenty to thirty-five grams of fiber per day. In addition, the Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center fact sheet claims that "research" states that fiber prevents cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and obesity. However, they believe that one must be careful in ingesting fiber, because an an excessive intake of fiber during a short amount of time, less than three weeks, may produce abdominal predicaments: bloating, diarrhea, gas, and discomfort.

The FHP Health Care fact sheet declares that other "health education specialists" helped prepare the fact sheet. They believe that one must be careful in consuming fiber because the excessive use of fiber can cause an augmentation of "volatile gas."

The Preventive Medicine Center fact sheet uses the American Heart Association's suggestions concerning dietary fiber as evidence. They state that a low-fiber diet can be related to colon cancer, breast cancer, diverticulitis, appendicitis, hemorrhoids, varicose veins, ulcer disease, heart attacks, strokes, depression, dialysis, and cataracts.

Dr. Warren Enker does not refer to any evidence, but voices his concerns over the excessive use of fiber: it can cause constipation, and many fiber supplements claim to be "natural laxatives." These "natural" laxatives can become dangerous beaus they prove to become addicting.

Adam Poole's research and the fact sheet from University of Denver do not refer to any specific evidence or safety precautions.

Linda Boekner, the Extension Nutrition Specialist, uses many journals, the American Dietetic Association, and government research in support of the benefits respecting fiber supplements. She states that "researchers" claim that fiber regulates cholesterol and glucose levels. She states that one should not eat too much fiber and one must have various sources of fiber. Another concern, she believes, remains that an adequate amount of water must accompany the intake of fiber supplements in order to prevent abdominal pain.

In summary, the majority of these fact sheets present an adequate amount of evidence, and clearly present the safety features of fiber supplements.

E. Evidence offered in support of the claim and safety features in the advertisements:

The ads concerning fiber supplements do not display a substantial amount of evidence in order to support that their products aid in weight loss. "Absorbitol, the Fat Binder" claims that "clinical studies" show that with the use of Absorbitol, total cholesterol was reduced as well as triglycerides. However, they state that one should not take Absorbitol if they have an excess intake of fat. The product's goal is to help loose weight through exercising and eating a low-fat diet.

"Sensatiables Bars" and "ChitoRich, the Amazing Fat Binder," do not refer to any evidence in order to support of their claims, or discuss any safety features concerning the use of fiber supplements. "Chitosan" refers to "animal studies" in order to prove that their product can help the body's fat intake. In addition, "Chitosan" states that its product does not promote overindulgence if one uses their product as a weight loss aid. The product should be used in accordance with exercise, a low-fat diet, sleep, and with a substantial amount of water.

When making claims concerning the effectiveness of their fiber supplement, "PowerBar" refers to "research studies." These studies show that fiber can decrease cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. PowerBar warns that if one uses another product that contains insoluble fiber, that individual will have an upset stomach and/or diarrhea.

"LiFiber," another fiber supplement, states that "studies indicate" that soluble fiber benefits the body through decreasing blood cholesterol, and that insoluble fiber simultaneously clears the body of wastes. Furthermore, these products do not present concrete evidence in support of their claims, and do not consider safety concerns.

F. Who is presenting this information and why?

Many of the fact sheets present information on fiber in order to advertise their respective businesses and to offer additional health care support. For example, Pacific Health Links, Pacific Health L.L.C., has a half page of advertising on their "health care" internet business, and an advertisement for a health care newsletter. Joanne Larsen created a fact sheet in order to advertise her services as a nutritionist. The American Dietetic Association's fact sheet, seven pages, states at the conclusion of the sheet that the Kellogg Company gave a grant to the ADA in order to produce the fact sheet. The first recommendation that the ADA makes is that one should start their high-fiber diet with a breakfast cereal. In addition, at the end of the fact sheet, an advertisement states that one can call a nutrition hotline for a $1.95 per minute. Perhaps, the Arizona Cancer Center created their fact sheet to advertise their "COPE line," and to advertise the Arizona Cancer Center. There remains no advertising for the Dietary Fiber Technology fact sheet. The Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, FHP Health Care, the Preventive Medicine Center, Dr. Enker, and Linda Boekner use their fact sheets in order to advertise their medical services. Adam Poole and the University of Denver's fact sheets just present their evidence.

On the other hand, through promoting weight loss, the fiber supplement advertisements in the world wide web blatantly discuss the importance of fiber in one's diet in order to sell their products. Absorbitol discusses the importance of fiber in order to sell their capsules. Enrich Corporation, who sells Sensatiables Bars, uses statements about fiber to promote their fiber bars, and each bar costs one dollar. Chitorich promotes fiber so that they may sell their fiber capsules, each pack costs $130.00. The Natural Health L.P. corporation sells their product through stating the benefits of fiber intake and its relationship to appetite control in order to sell their capsules. which cost $64.95. In addition, Power Bar and LiFiber discuss the significance of fiber and weight gain in order to sell their fiber supplements.

In all, evidence in support of the use of fiber supplements can be found in the fact sheets, one can be assured of the advertisements' effectiveness through the use of research on the internet. Thus, these facts sheets support the products' claims.

II. Research From Scientific Literature:

The research found in numerous scientific journals supports virtually every claim made on the world wide web, both the fact sheets and the fiber supplement advertising. Most of the research from the scientific journals support that the use of fiber increases satiety, thus a weight control product, and that the use of fiber reduces levels of serum cholesterol. In addition, various scientific literature states that there remains a relationship between the use of dietary fiber and a decrease in coronary heart disease, the improvement of glucose homeostasis, a reduction in breast cancer, growth retardation caused by mineral oil ingestion, a prevention for strokes, and a lowering of blood pressure. In addition, further research encourages the use of fiber to the recommended level of twenty to thirty-five grams per day, and research supports the use of fiber in conformity to moderation and variety.

In researching fiber supplements, the foremost concern remains its safety. A primary research report conducted by Hunt et. al (1993) states that one should increase their fiber intake because of its health benefits and its therapeutic role in the body (1).

A. Research in scientific literature that claims that the use of fiber causes weight loss, appetite control, and reduced levels of serum cholesterol:

In all, the main argument on the internet and in the product advertisements becomes the role that fiber plays in the reduction of weight because it can be used as an appetite control. Scientific literature supports these claims. A primary research report directed by Burley et. al (1993) states that the use of a high-fiber food has a clear effect on the control of appetite and its relationship to body weight. Nine males and nine females who had lean, healthy bodies participated in the study. Two different meals were prepared, everything remained similar within the two meals, except the fiber content. The low-fiber meal had three grams of dietary fiber, and the high-fiber meal had eleven grams of fiber. The researchers did not tell the subjects about the hypothesis that fiber may be a beneficial aid for appetite control. Subjects were to eat the meals with the low-fiber content, and the high-fiber meal. After eating the two different meals, the subjects reported the pleasantness of the food and how full they felt. The subjects had to keep diaries throughout the day. After four to four and a half hours after to lunch, the people who ate the high-fiber meal had a lower desire to eat than the group which ate the low-fiber meal. There remained an eighteen percent reduction of food intake because of the high-fiber meal. The researchers then concluded that the high-fiber meal (Quorn) can be an aid to increase the later stages of satiety. They also indicated that in previous studies (Burley& Blundell, 1992) that the intake of thirty grams of fiber supplements per day causes a decrease of appetite

(2). Jorgensen et. al (1996) conducted research with broiler chickens and found the same results. They concluded, through testing their appetite control, that the increase of fiber had a direct relationship with body fat reduction. They believe that the chickens who did not have a high-fiber diet, had an increase in fat retention (3).

In addition, numerous primary research reports stated the important role of fiber in weight loss and its effect to decrease in serum cholesterol levels. One primary research report, Kaul and Nidiry (1993), conducted experiments on nine obese patients (twenty percent or more above the recommended body weight). These patients were given a Meal Exchange for one to eight months. This Meal Exchange consisted of a high-fiber food (14.68 grams) which contained nuts, nonfat milk, whole grains, and lactase. The results confirmed the beneficial role fiber has concerning weight loss and blood cholesterol levels. The patients, on average, lost seventeen pounds, and their blood cholesterol levels dropped dramatically. In addition, a previous study in 1987 showed that a regular 1200-calorie diet does not cause the same amount of weight loss as the high-fiber Meal Exchange. In that study the average weight loss on the regular diet was eight pounds, while the average weight loss for the high-fiber meal was twelve pounds. The report concluded that a high-fiber diet benefits the body through weight loss and lower levels of blood cholesterol (4).

Two other primary research reports depict the effects of fiber and its advantageous relationship to body weight and cholesterol. Seim and Holtmeier (1992) tested forty-one people who stayed on a low-fat, high-fiber diet for a period of six weeks. The subjects were given a list of certain foods to buy in grocery stores which were high in fiber, thus low in fat. The average weight loss was ten pounds and the average body mass index decreased five percent. Total cholesterol levels decreased sixteen percent. Thus, the researchers concluded that a low-fat, high- fiber diet aids the body in weight and cholesterol reduction (5). Another primary research report executed by Borne et. al (1996) deduced the same conclusions. Six dogs were on a high-fat, low-fiber diet, and six different dogs were fed a low-fat, high-fiber diet. The dogs on the low-fat, high-fiber diet had a decrease in body fat and reduced total serum cholesterol concentrations. Thus, the researchers believed that these findings become integral in understanding weight management, in regards to obesity research (6).

Furthermore, two primary research reports solely concern the relationship between dietary fiber and a reduction in cholesterol levels. Hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats were used and they were fed dietary supplements. This diet also included a reduced intake of dietary fat. As an outcome of the experiment, serum total cholesterol and serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations were decreased in the rats. Another primary research report conducted by Donnelly et. al (1996) concluded that a low-fat and high-fiber meal reduces HDL cholesterol. Third and fifth graders were observed four two years in rural Nebraska. There was an intervention and a control group. The intervention group was fed a lower in fat and higher in fiber meal than the control group. After two years of tests, the researchers confirmed that the low-fat, high-fiber diet caused a dramatic reduction in HDL cholesterol levels (7).

B. Research in scientific literature that supports the claim that fiber benefits the body by helping the body to maintain good health:

A review research report on dietary fiber and health by Trusell (1993) made a comprehensive analysis of the numerous benefits of dietary fiber. They determined that there remain two types of fiber, soluble and insoluble fiber. These two various kinds of fiber perform different functions in the body, especially in blood glucose, plasma cholesterol, transit time, fermentability and levels of constipation (Wolever and Jenkins 1986). The review report determined that insoluble fiber can increase fecal bulk (Williams and Olmsted 1986) and relieve constipation (Muller-Lissner 1988). Moreover, soluble fiber can become an aid for diabetes helping the upper gastrointestinal tract (Peterson and Mann 1985). Soluble fiber can also help lower plasma cholesterol (Truswell and Beynen 1992). The review also reported that an incomplete intake of dietary fiber can be the result of gallstones (Burkitt and Trowell 1975) and diverticular diseases (Painter and Almeida 1972). The report further stated that the most beneficial aspect of fiber is its effect on the risk of large bowel cancer (Neale 1988). A study conducted by Willett et al. on 88,000 nurses in the United States reported that an increase of fiber lowered the risk of colon cancer (1990). Therefore, there remain numerous advantages concerning of the use of dietary fiber and the maintenance of good health.

The most important information concerning the fact sheets and products advertised on the internet remains the effect fiber supplements have in weight reduction through its effect on satiety levels. Reports from the aforementioned review paper deduced that fiber supplements can be a suitable source of fiber because the fiber supplements can separate the advantages from the disadvantages of the two different types of fiber. In addition, this review paper confirmed that in "double-blind" trials that fiber supplements result in a larger weight loss than the intake of regular dietary fiber (Ryttig and Leeds 1990). Fiber supplements also aid in weight loss because they are naturally low in saturated fat and they dispose fat. In addition, several research studies, including studies conducted by Haber and Heaton 1977, Brand and Holt 1990, and Burlery, Leeds and Blundell 1987, claimed that fiber reduces the appetite or extends satiety. Ultimately, this review paper supports the claims made on the internet and the claims that the advertisements make. The review paper supported that fiber suppresses appetite, and thus leading to weight reduction. However, it does not state that fiber can be used solely as an aid in weight loss (8).

In primary research reports, fiber has been proven to have other beneficial aspects. Fiber reduces the risk of coronary heart disease, improves glucose homeostasis, reduces risk of breast cancer, causes growth retardation by mineral oil ingestion to become prevented, prevents strokes, and causes the blood pressure to become lowered. Two primary research reports confirm that a diet high in fiber can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. Rimm and Ascherio (1996) studied 43, 757 male health professionals and gave them 131 questions in order to measure their dietary fiber intake. After six years of follow-up, the researchers found that the professionals who had a ten gram increase of fiber intake had a decreased risk of coronary heart disease. Thus, they concluded that dietary fiber, independent of fat intake, will prevent coronary heart disease (9). Another primary research report executed similar conclusions. Bagger and Andersen (1996) studied rats who were given an increase of dietary fiber. Cholesterol levels were reduced, and the researchers determined that an increase in fiber can decrease risk signs of coronary heart disease (10). Reimer and McBurney (1996) administered an experiment to test fiber and its role in glucose homeostasis. They tested Sprague-Dawley rats for fourteen days and gave them either a low-fiber or high-fiber diet. They found that the rats with high-fiber diets had modified insulin. In all, they concluded that fiber remains highly beneficial in helping glucose homeostasis (11).

Rohan, Howe, Friedenreich, Jain and Miller in 1993 studied 56,837 women for five years. The dietary intake of women who had breast cancer, and women who had not been diagnosed with breast cancer were compared and contrasted. Women who had a high intake of fiber had a thirty percent reduction in the risk of breast cancer compared to the women who had a low intake of fiber (12).

Through the experimentation on rats, Morita et. al (1993) made another conclusion about the helpful role of dietary fiber. Growth retardation can be caused by mineral oil. However, through experiments they found that growth retardation was counteracted by the intake of dietary fiber (13).

Yamoir and Horie (1994) studied dietary fiber and its relationship in the prevention of strokes. They carried out an intervention study and studied sixty-three healthy senior citizens in a senior citizens' home. The researchers regulated their diet for four weeks and their mortality for strokes was observed for ten years and then compared to the average mortality rate in Japan for ten years. The researchers discovered that the senior citizens' blood pressure was lower, and there remained a decrease in hemorrhagic, ischemic and strokes compared to the average population in Japan (14).

Conclusion:

Fiber supplements prove to benefit the body through weight loss, discarding wastes in the body, for the prevention of diseases mentioned above, and for general good health. These primary research reports and review papers virtually support every claim made in the internet, excluding the psychological effects of dietary fiber. The internet research and scientific literature research both confirm the importance of fiber, thus the importance of fiber supplements in promoting good health. Few precautions exist, one review resolutely advocates the use of fiber, except the report suggests moderation and variety Kritchevsky (1993) (15). In addition to the safety precautions mentioned in the internet research above, the primary research and review papers also believe that infants and long-distance athletes must be cautious with their fiber intake (Truswell 1992) (8). Excluding these groups, however, fiber supplements remain an integral aid in improving nutrition. In regard to weight control, fiber supplements help increase satiety and therefore procures weight loss. Fiber supplements can then become an aid to persons with obesity or binge eating disorder.


References:

1. Hunt R., Fedorak R., Frohlich J., McLennan C., Pavilanis A. (1993, April). Therapeutic role of dietary fibre. Canadian Family Physician, 39, 897-900.

2. Burley VJ., Paul AW., Blundell JE. (1993, June). Influence of a high-fibre food (myco- protein) on appetite: effects on satiation (within meals) and satiety (following meals). European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 47, 409-418.

3. Jorgensen H., Zhoa XQ., Knudsen KE., Eggum BO. (1996, March). The influence of dietary fibre source and level on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, digestibility and energy metabolism in broiler chickens. British Journal of Nutrition, 75, 379-395.

4. Kaul L., Nidiry J. (1993, March). High-fiber diet in the treatment of obesity and hypercholesterolemia. Journal of the National Medical Association, 85, 231-232.

5. Seim HC., Holtmeier KB. (1992 December). Effects of a six-week, low-fat diet on serum cholesterol, body weight, and body measurements. Family Practice Research Journal, 12, 411-419.

6. Borne AT., Wolfsheimer KJ., Truett AA., Kiene J., Wojciechowski T., Davenport DJ., Ford RB., West DB. (1996 July). Differential metabolic effects of energy restriction in dogs using diets varying in fat and fiber content. Obesity Research, 4, 337-345.

7. Donnelly JE., Jacobsen DJ., Whatley JE., Hill JO., Swift LL., Chierrington A., Polk B., Tran ZV., Reed G. (1996 May). Nutrition and physical activity program to attenuate obesity and promote physical and metabolic fitness in elementary school children. Obesity Research, 4, 229-243. 1

8. Trestle AS. (1993). Dietary fiber and health (Review). World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics, 72, 148-164.

9. Rim BE., Scherzo A., Giovannucci E., Spiegelman D., Stampfer MJ., Willett WC. (1996 February). Vegetable, fruit, and cereal fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men. JAMA, 275, 447-451.

10. Bagger M., Andersen O., Nielsen JB., Ryttig KR. (1996 March). Dietary fibres reduce blood pressure, serum total cholesterol and platelet aggregation in rats. British Journal of Nutrition, 75, 483-493.

11. Reimer RA., McBurney MI. (1996 September). Dietary fiber modulates intestinal proglucagon messenger ribonucleic acid and postprandial secretion of glucogon-like peptide-1 and insulin in rats. Endocrinology, 137, 3948-3956.

12. Rohan TE., Howe GR., Friedenreich CM., Jain M., Miller AB. (1993 January). Dietary fiber, vitamins A, C, and E, and risk of breast cancer: a cohort study. Cancer Causes and Control, 4, 29-37.

13. Morita T., Ebihara K., Kiriyama S. (1993 September). Dietary fiber and fat-derivatives prevent mineral oil toxicity in rats by the same mechanism. Journal of Nutrition, 123, 1575-1585.

14. Yamori Y., Horie R. (1994). Community-based prevention of stroke: nutritional improvement in Japan. Health Reports, 6, 181-188.

15. Kritchevsky D. (1993 August). Dietary guidelines. The rational for intervention. Cancer, 72, 1011-1014.

 

 

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